Rodney Northey has more than 30 years of experience with permitting processes applicable to energy facilities. This experience includes current federal impact assessments under the 2019 Impact Assessment Act and familiarity with federal environmental assessments from the 1990s to the present under earlier federal regimes. He is author of six books on federal environmental assessment beginning in 1994 and including A Guide to Canada’s Impact Assessment Act (LexisNexis Canada, 2023). He was a member of the 2016-17 expert panel to reform federal environmental assessment (Building Common Ground) and the 2004-05 expert panel to reform Ontario environmental assessment (Improving Assessment in Ontario: A Framework for Reform). He has worked on land laws passed for a major wind energy project under the 1999 First Nations Land Management Act, and Nunavut permitting processes. The author is also familiar with Ontario permitting laws, including Ontario’s environmental assessment regime, land use permitting processes on Crown and private lands across Ontario, and approvals and appeals under Ontario’s 2009 Green Energy Act reforms. This paper relies on this experience with federal, territorial, Indigenous, and Ontario permitting processes.